e-book Contemporary Child Care Policy and Practice

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With an emphasis on promoting self-reliance, autonomy and independence, this exciting new book provides a contemporary and holistic analysis of the childhood resilience. It recognises 'resilience in childhood' as a complex construct, critically …. Comprehensive in its coverage, the text examines the core areas of childcare practice, considering the various strengths and weaknesses of both policy and practice. With an emphasis on reflective practice, this text is insightful reading for all …. Since the Munro report , a greater emphasis has been placed on the value of child-centred practice in social work with children, young people and families.

It has come to be recognised that social workers cannot make an assessment or …. Carol Hayden reviews evidence about children in trouble across a range of circumstances, demonstrating the tensions between welfare and justice, care and control in the treatment of these vulnerable young people and evaluating the implications of ….

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The impact of sibling relationships on how people develop has been dramatically under-emphasised in the literature on child development. Piaget provides an explanation for why learning through play is such a crucial aspect of learning as a child. However, due to the advancement of technology, the art of play has started to dissolve and has transformed into "playing" through technology. If we want to develop a variety of skills, we need a balanced media diet. Each medium has costs and benefits in terms of what skills each develops.

Many oppose the theory of learning through play because they think children are not gaining new knowledge. In reality, play is the first way children learn to make sense of the world at a young age. Research suggests that the way children play and interact with concepts at a young age could help explain the differences in social and cognitive interactions later. When learning what behavior to associate with a set action can help lead children on to a more capable future.

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They are exploring different roles, learning how things work, and learning to communicate and work with others. These things cannot be taught by a standard curriculum, but have to be developed through the method of play. Many preschools understand the importance of play and have designed their curriculum around that to allow children to have more freedom. Once these basics are learned at a young age, it sets children up for success throughout their schooling and their life. Many [ who? They can follow through when a task is difficult and listen to directions for a few minutes.

These skills are linked to self-control, which is within the social and emotional development that is learned over time through play amongst other things.

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The approach focuses on learning through discovery. Maslow's hierarchy of needs showcases the different levels of needs that must be met the chart to the right showcases these needs. Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky proposed a "socio-cultural learning theory" that emphasized the impact of social and cultural experiences on individual thinking and the development of mental processes.

In Vygotsky's theories of learning he also had the theory of zone proximal development.

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This theory ties in with children building off of prior knowledge and gaining new knowledge related to skills they already have. In the theory it describes how new knowledge or skills are taken in if they are not fully learned but are starting to emerge. Once the skills are starting to be learned they need to be supported and taught to the person.

In each zone of proximal development, they build on skills and grow by learning more skills in their proximal development range. They build on the skills by being guided by teachers and parents. The theory also describes how even with teaching, it can't alter a child's development at any time. They must build off of where they are in their zone of proximal development.

Vygotsky argued that since cognition occurs within a social context, our social experiences shape our ways of thinking about and interpreting the world. Although Vygotsky predated social constructivists, he is commonly classified as one.


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Social constructivists believe that an individual's cognitive system is a resditional learning time. Vygotsky advocated that teachers facilitate rather than direct student learning. It is important to do this because students' levels of interest and abilities will vary and there needs to be differentiation. However, teachers can enhance understandings and learning for students. Vygotsky states that by sharing meanings that are relevant to the children's environment, adults promote cognitive development as well.

Their teachings can influence thought processes and perspectives of students when they are in new and similar environments. Since Vygotsky promotes more facilitation in children's learning, he suggests that knowledgeable people and adults in particular , can also enhance knowledges through cooperative meaning-making with students in their learning. Teachers can help students achieve their cognitive development levels through consistent and regular interactions of collaborative knowledge-making learning processes. Jean Piaget 's constructivist theory gained influence in the s and '80s.


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Although Piaget himself was primarily interested in a descriptive psychology of cognitive development , he also laid the groundwork for a constructivist theory of learning. He said that "if logic itself is created rather than being inborn, it follows that the first task of education is to form reasoning.

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According to Piaget's theory, when young children encounter new information, they attempt to accommodate and assimilate it into their existing understanding of the world. Accommodation involves adapting mental schemas and representations in order to make them consistent with reality. Assimilation involves fitting new information into their pre-existing schemas.


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Through these two processes, young children learn by equilibrating their mental representations with reality. They also learn from mistakes. A Piagetian approach emphasizes experiential education; in school, experiences become more hands-on and concrete as students explore through trial and error.

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Subsequent reflection on these experiences is equally important. Piaget's concept of reflective abstraction was particularly influential in mathematical education. This allows children to develop mathematical constructs that cannot be learned through equilibration — making sense of experiences through assimilation and accommodation — alone. According to Piagetian theory, language and symbolic representation is preceded by the development of corresponding mental representations. Research shows that the level of reflective abstraction achieved by young children was found to limit the degree to which they could represent physical quantities with written numerals.

Piaget held that children can invent their own procedures for the four arithmetical operations, without being taught any conventional rules. Piaget's theory implies that computers can be a great educational tool for young children when used to support the design and construction of their projects. McCarrick and Xiaoming found that computer play is consistent with this theory.

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David Kolb 's experiential learning theory, which was influenced by John Dewey , Kurt Lewin and Jean Piaget, argues that children need to experience things in order to learn: "The process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combinations of grasping and transforming experience. As a child explores and observes, teachers ask the child probing questions. The child can then adapt prior knowledge to learning new information. Kolb breaks down this learning cycle into four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation, and active experimentation.

Children observe new situations, think about the situation, make meaning of the situation, then test that meaning in the world around them. In recent decades, studies have shown that early childhood education is critical in preparing children to enter and succeed in the grade school classroom, diminishing their risk of social-emotional mental health problems and increasing their self-sufficiency later in their lives. There is no subject to be considered taboo, starting with the most basic knowledge of the world he lives in, and ending with deeper areas, such as morality, religion and science.

Visual stimulus and response time as early as 3 months can be an indicator of verbal and performance IQ at age 4 years. This allows children the opportunity to build and nurture trusting relationships with educators and social relationships with peers. By providing education in a child's most formative years, ECE also has the capacity to pre-emptively begin closing the educational achievement gap between low and high-income students before formal schooling begins.

Especially since the first wave of results from the Perry Preschool Project were published, there has been widespread consensus that the quality of early childhood education programs correlate with gains in low-income children's IQs and test scores, decreased grade retention, and lower special education rates. Several studies have reported that children enrolled in ECE increase their IQ scores by points by age five, while a Milwaukee study reported a point gain.

Beyond benefitting societal good, ECE also significantly impacts the socioeconomic outcomes of individuals. For example, by age 26, students who had been enrolled in Chicago Child-Parent Centers were less likely to be arrested, abuse drugs, and receive food stamps; they were more likely to have high school diplomas, health insurance and full-time employment.

The World Bank 's World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work [67] identifies early childhood development programs as one of the most effective ways governments can equip children with the skills they will need to succeed in future labor markets. The Perry Preschool Project, which was conducted in the s in Ypsilanti, Michigan , is the oldest social experiment in the field of early childhood education and has heavily influenced policy in the United States and across the globe.

The intervention for children in the treatment group included active learning preschool sessions on weekdays for 2. The intervention also included weekly visits by the teachers to the homes of the children for about 1. Initial evaluations of the Perry intervention showed that the preschool program failed to significantly boost an IQ measure.